A DSN stores the data source information necessary for the Driver Manager to connect to the database. This can be configured either through the ODBC(Open Database Connectivity) Administrator or in a DSN file. On Windows, the information is called a system or user DSN and is stored in the Registry.
Open Run and type the following command to open Microsoft ODBC Manager:
Or it is available under Control Panel–> Administrative Tools–>Data Sources(ODBC).
What’s a DSN ?
According to Microsoft documentation, it means “The name that applications use to request a connection to an ODBC data source.” In other words, it is a symbolic name that represents the ODBC connection. It hides the connection details like database name, directory, database driver, UserID, password, etc. So when making a connection to the ODBC, you don’t have to remember the database name, where it resides, etc.
Before we discuss this, let me the list the various types of DSNs.
- System DSN: This is the DSN used through out the system, no matter which user logs in. Meaning, all users on the system can see this DSN and use it (as long as they know the user ID and password). The connection parms are stored in the registry.
- User DSN: This is a DSN created for a specific user. Only the user who created the DSN can see this and use it. Like System DSN, the information is stored in the registry.
In both these two cases, DSN details are stored in the system registry.
With that, let me explain what a file DSN is. Instead of storing the DSN details in registry, you store it in a file – simple ?! Yes, it is. The file is a simple text file, with a .DSN extension.
Although it sounds simple, you need to know the parameters that make up a DSN. But again, it is not all that difficult, as you can look this up in any ODBC reference, or online help that comes with Visual Basic or Access.
Shown below is a generic file DSN for an MS Access database.
————- file.dsn ——-
DRIVER=Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)
I call the file file.dsn, you may rename it appropriately.
Creating this file is half work done. The next step is creating a connection. When using a system DSN, you create a connection by simply using the system DSN name, something like
While using the file DSN shown above, you need a few more parameters I purposely left out so that you could reuse the file DSN. The final connection string will look like
c:\webdir is the directory where file DSN resides. This requires a physical path to the file. On an ISP, you could use Server.mapPath method to determine this directory. Something like
the same holds for DBQ parameter. UID and PWD are optional.
In summary, to create a reusable file DSN
- Create a text file with DSN parameters. This file has a .dsn extension
- Create the connection string, with the filedsn and DBQ parameters. You can determine physical paths using Server.MapPath method
- Use the DSN for as many databases you want, by changing just the DBQ, UID and PWD parameters
Note that databases other than MS Access require different values for parameters and also some additional parameters.